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Wondering whether to use MongoDB vs MySQL in your software development project? Our MongoDB-MySQL comparison will help you to decide.
Key characteristics of MySQL database management system
MySQL is one of the most popular relational database management systems today. Although Oracle Corporation now owns the company that had created MySQL, this SQL database is open-source.
The key characteristics of MySQL are as follows:
MySQL is a full-fledged relational database management system (RDBMS)
As we explained in our SQL-vs-NoSQL comparison, relational databases must conform to certain rules.
These are as follows:
- A relational database stores only structured data.
- Relational database management systems (RDBMSs) use a rows-columns-tables structure for storing data.
- A relational database system must follow the relevant rules for maintaining data integrity. A few examples of these rules are entity integrity and referential integrity.
- Developers using traditional relational database systems must use SQL (Structured Query Language) to communicate with these databases. Structured Query Language is a uniform standard used by all relational database systems. SQL includes DDL (Data Definition Language), DML (Data Manipulation Language), etc.
- Relational database systems must conform to the “ACID” properties. “ACID” stands for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. SQL databases conforming to these properties ensure data integrity and data consistency.
- An SQL database should allow for vertical scalability.
- MySQL supports all of these requirements.
MySQL requires a schema definition
You need to create a schema definition to use MySQL for your app. The database schema definition should cover the data structure, data dictionary, relationships between tables, and other relevant information.
MySQL supports data replication
You can use master-slave replication in MySQL. Furthermore, you can use master-master replication.
MySQL supports performance and scalability
MySQL has seen multiple rounds of enhancements. Many of them improved the performance and scalability of MySQL considerably.
Pros and cons of MySQL
MySQL offers many advantages. These are as follows:
- MySQL is very popular. Many organizations already use it for different purposes. A wide range of applications utilizes MySQL. You can easily find developers with experience in MySQL.
- MySQL is an open-source relational database. There’s a large community of developers to support it. You can get excellent community support.
- This RDBMS is compatible with all key platforms.
- MySQL is an enterprise-grade RDBMS. In fact, PostgreSQL and MySQL are two SQL databases that are open-source as well as highly versatile.
- You use SQL to query data in MySQL. SQL offers extensive capabilities for CRUD operations. It includes DML (data manipulation language), DDL (data definition language), etc., and SQL offers a standard interface. You can review our SQL interview questions to understand how powerful this language is.
- MySQL offers performance and scalability.
- You can use MySQL for developing cloud-native applications.
- MySQL supports a large data volume.
- MySQL offers important data security features.
- Storage engine operations in MySQL are efficient due to fewer overheads.
- The disadvantages to using MySQL are as follows:
- You can only store structured data.
- You need to create a schema first.
- MySQL requires you to use the rigid pattern of tables-rows-columns.
- MySQL doesn’t support caching of stored procedures.
- This RDBMS doesn’t support Python or Java integrations.
Key characteristics of MongoDB database management system
MongoDB is one of the leading document-oriented NoSQL databases. Although MongoDB Inc. owns it, this non-relational database system is open-source.
The key characteristics of MongoDB are as follows:
MongoDB is a NoSQL database
As we talked about in our SQL-vs-NoSQL comparison, NoSQL databases have a few general characteristics. These are as follows:
- NoSQL databases support structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. You can have document databases, key-value stores, column-oriented databases, and graph databases.
- Such databases have their own languages for data access. These languages differ from SQL in varying degrees.
- You can scale NoSQL databases horizontally. In other words, you can add multiple servers to scale them.
- NoSQL databases adhere to the “CAP” theorem. “CAP” refers to three properties, namely, consistency, availability, and partition tolerance. NoSQL databases can conform to only two of these three properties at a time.
- MongoDB exhibits all of the above criteria. Consider the following:
- MongoDB supports structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. It stores data as BSON documents, which are JSON-like documents. Like JSON documents, they offer flexibility to MongoDB.
- You use the MongoDB Query Language (MQL) to retrieve data. MQL differs from SQL.
- MongoDB supports horizontal scaling. Note that it supports vertical scaling too.
- MongoDB conforms to the “CAP” theorem.
You don’t need to create a schema in MongoDB
MongoDB stores data without the need for a schema. You don’t need to create a schema to use MongoDB.
MongoDB supports replication of data
You can have data replication in MongoDB. Furthermore, MongoDB supports the concept of sharding.
MongoDB offers scalability and performance
Developers of MongoDB have optimized for write performance. MongoDB offers high scalability.
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Pros and cons of MongoDB database
MongoDB offers the following advantages:
- MongoDB documents can contain structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. This flexibility comes from using JSON data.
- MongoDB is easy to use. It doesn’t use a rigid table-row-column structure. You don’t need to define a schema upfront since MongoDB uses a dynamic schema design.
- You can use MongoDB for real-time analytics. MQL, the query language for MongoDB helps you there.
- This open-source database is highly popular, and many developers know it. You can get excellent community support.
- MongoDB supports all key platforms, and it’s good for developing cloud-native apps.
- This DBMS offers load balancing and data duplication.
- The flexibility offered by MongoDB makes it easy to modify your app.
- MongoDB offers a high degree of database performance, scalability, and availability.
MongoDB has a few disadvantages. These are as follows:
It doesn’t conform to “ACID” properties, therefore, the accuracy of data can be impacted.
- MongoDB doesn’t support stored procedures. Therefore, you can’t implement business logic at the database level.
- You can’t foreign keys in MongoDB. It doesn’t support “JOIN”s and complex queries.
- Developers that have worked on relational databases only might have a steep learning curve.
MongoDB vs MySQL comparison
MongoDB and MySQL have similarities as well as differences.
The similarities are as follows:
- MongoDB and MySQL are open-source databases.
- Both MySQL and MongoDB are highly popular in the database market. You can get developers with knowledge of these databases.
- You can use either of these databases for important projects like web development.
- MongoDB and MySQL offer data security, performance, and scalability.
- MySQL vs MongoDB differences
- MongoDB and MySQL have the following differences:
- MySQL can support only structured data. MongoDB can handle structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data.
- You use the table-row-column pattern of an RDBMS to store data in MySQL. MongoDB doesn’t need to follow this pattern.
- MongoDB doesn’t require you to create a schema. You need to create a schema to use MySQL.
- You can use SQL to retrieve and manage data in MySQL. MongoDB offers MQL (MongoDB Query Language) to manage and retrieve data.
- MySQL complies with the “ACID” properties. This ensures data integrity. However, MongoDB complies with the “CAP” theorem. It offers high data availability and partition tolerance.
- MySQL supports “JOIN”s and complex queries. MongoDB doesn’t support them.
- You can have foreign keys in MySQL, however, MongoDB doesn’t support them.
- MySQL supports vertical scaling. You can scale MongoDB both horizontally and vertically.
- MySQL supports master-slave and master-master replication. MongoDB supports sharding in addition to replication.
- MongoDB is less vulnerable to cyber-attacks since it doesn’t have schemas. Although MySQL offers robust security, it’s vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.
When to use MongoDB vs MySQL
You should use MongoDB if you have any one or more of the following requirements:
- You need to develop an enterprise-scale traditional business application involving transaction processing, reporting, etc.
- You will process structured data.
- Your proposed application needs a relational database with high performance and scalability.
- The proposed app will need robust security.
- Opt for MongoDB if you have any one or more of the following requirements:
- You need to process semi-structured and unstructured data.
- You need high availability, performance, and scalability.
- Your project involves developing a modern application that might change frequently.
- You plan to consume services that run on the cloud.
- Having said that, you can use both MySQL and MongoDB in your project. Analyze your requirements carefully.
Planning to hire developers with experience in MySQL and/or MongoDB? Contact DevTeam.Space.
Uber, GitHub, Booking.com, AIRBUS, NASA, US Navy, CERN, McGraw-Hill Education, Bank of America, Square, Line Corp, Caterpillar, Bayer, Eli Lilly, BBC, Spotify, Zendesk, Telenor, JD.com, and Verizon Wireless are some of the leading organizations that use MySQL.
Forbes, Toyota, Sanoma, Intuit, Paylocity, ADP, AstraZeneca, Barclays, AXA, Bosch, Business Insider, Cisco, Verizon, Helvetia, Conrad, Humana, TIM, Nationwide Building Society, Pitney Bowes, and Expedia are some of the well-known organizations that use MongoDB.
We can provide skilled developers with experience in both MySQL and MongoDB. Furthermore, we can provide an entire development team with experience in both of these popular database systems.